Sorry all, this is a little technical, but with an election coming up, please try to grasp this particular nettle. In short, take the time to number your preferences all the way down and make sure parties you hate go last. Hat tip to RiteOn for producing this excellent summary of a very complex issue.

How to Vote Part 2.
The Power of Preference Distribution

In Part 1 I explained how to make sure that your ballot paper is completed in accordance with the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) requirements and NOT rejected as Informal.  I also introduced the importance & the power of preferences in changing outcomes. If you missed Part 1 you can read it here

Part 2 now examines how members are elected to the House of Representatives – which decides who forms Government.  There were 150 members elected from across Australia in the 2016 federal election.  This time around, 151 members will be elected using the same compulsory preferential voting system & a 2 Candidate Preferred (2CP) methodology.  Part 2 goes into significant depth about how votes are cast, and how preferences are distributed & flow between candidates & parties.  First, by a study of a fictitious electorate called ‘SMALL’, and then the electorate of Dickson from the 2016 election which is shaping up as a key seat in the 2019 election & under intense Labor & Get UP activism.

YOUR PREFERENCE DECISIONS ARE NO ‘SMALL’ MATTER

The election in the fictitious electorate of SMALL was contested by 5 candidates (A,B,C,D, & E).

A total of 15 voters were registered with the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC), and 15 ballot papers were cast (a 100% turnout).  The 15 ballot papers lodged with the voter’s order of preference are in the table below.

A total of 4 ballot papers marked candidate A with a number1 (1st preference).  Three of those ballot papers marked candidate B as the number 2 preference, candidate C as the number 3 preference, candidate D as the number 4 preference & candidate E as the number 5 preference.

One of the 4 marked candidate E as the number 2 preference, candidate D as the number 3 preference, candidate C as the number 4 preference & candidate B as the number 5 preference.  These 4 votes with the preference orders are shown in the following charts in yellow.

Similarly, the 1st preference votes for candidate B are coloured purple (2 votes), candidate C in blue (5 votes), candidate D in orange (3 votes) and candidate E in green (1 vote)

Now, let’s follow the count and preference flows to see who wins.

The Primary (1st preference) votes are counted first – Candidate C (blue votes) has won the primary vote with 5 votes or 33.33% of the total votes cast (15).   The candidate with the lowest number of votes is now excluded (candidate ‘E’ with 1 vote).

Candidate E’s vote (colour green) is now distributed to the candidate numbered 2 on the ballot paper (candidate A).  This is called a preference distribution. After distribution of candidate E’s preference vote, the process continues.  The next candidate with the lowest number of votes is now excluded (candidate B with 2 votes).

 Candidate B’s 2 votes (colour purple) are distributed to the next valid preference on each of the 2 ballot papers.

One of the votes has candidate D numbered 2.  Candidate D has not been excluded, this vote therefore is distributed to candidate D.  However, the other ballot paper has candidate E numbered 2, but candidate E is already excluded, therefore the vote is distributed to the candidate numbered 3 on the ballot paper i.e. candidate C.

The process continues.  Candidate D is now the candidate with the lowest number of votes (4) is the next excluded and preferences distributed.   Candidate D’s 4 votes include:- 3 1st preference votes (orange) and 1 second preference vote from candidate B (purple).

Candidate D’s three 1st preference votes (orange) have candidate B as number 2, but B is already excluded, therefore the three orange votes are distributed to the candidates numbered 3.   Two of the votes are distributed to candidate A.  The candidate numbered 3 on one of the votes however is E who is also already excluded, therefore this vote is distributed to the candidate numbered 4, i.e. candidate C.

The voting system in the fictitious electorate of SMALL & in the Australian House of Representatives elections is a 2 candidate preferred (2CP) system.  Through the exclusion of candidates & the distribution of their preferences, only 2 candidates now remain.  The candidate with the highest number of votes is declared ELECTED.  In this case Candidate A is ELECTED with 8 votes compared to candidate C’s 7 votes.

Candidate C may have won the most primary (1st preference) votes, but Candidate ‘A’ is ELECTED in the electorate of SMALL with 53.333% of the 2CP vote.

The distribution of preferences is a very complex process as candidates get excluded, BUT it is preferences that decide who is finally elected in many seats in the House of Representatives.
Take a look at the orange vote DBECA above – the vote rested with the second last preferred candidate C.

From Part 1, we saw that 102 of the 150 (68%) of House of Reps seats in the 2016 election were decided by preference votes.  This is why it is critical to understand the system and think very carefully of your preference order to make sure that your preference votes don’t unintentionally elect a non-preferred candidate.  Equally critical is to make sure that if your numbered 1 candidate is excluded that your preference order distributes votes to your next preferred candidates before non-preferred candidates.

 In a 2CP system, you can only guarantee that a candidate will NOT receive your preference vote if you number that candidate LAST.
This can be guaranteed because at least one of your earlier preferred candidates will be in the 2 candidate preferred race, and that’s where your preference will rest.

 A REAL ELECTORATE – ‘DICKSON’ at the 2016 election

The North Brisbane seat of DICKSON was contested by 6 candidates in the 2016 election.

The order of appearance on the ballot paper is a random draw process much like horse barrier draws.   Voters who fit into a category of don’t care, disillusioned or don’t understand often number their preferences from top down in numerical order.  These are called ‘donkey votes’.  The top spot on a ballot paper is much prized to attract the 1st preference ‘donkey vote’, and last spot dreaded.

In a 2 Candidate Preferred (2CP) voting system the candidate in the last spot would NEVER receive a preference vote from ‘donkey votes’.  Candidates above the bottom spot would always contain at least 1 (or maybe 2) candidates who would finish in the final 2 preferred candidates, and that’s where a ‘donkey vote’ preference would rest.

In the case of Dickson electorate below the candidates from left to right are in the order of the candidates on the ballot paper from top to bottom.  Doug Nicholson (LDP) drew top spot and Peter Dutton (LNP) drew the bottom spot.  Peter Dutton, therefore never received a preference vote from the ‘donkey votes’.   All ‘donkey votes’ rested at their number 3 preference, the ALP candidate who was not excluded & remained in the final 2 candidates.  It could be said that ALP benefited from donkey votes at Peter Dutton’s expense.

Let’s look at the detailed preference vote flows.

 Step 1. – Primary (1st Preference) votes counted

Peter Dutton (LNP) won the primary vote count with 44.56%, followed by Linda Lavarch (ALP) with 34.94%, and Michael Berkman (Greens) next with 9.87%.  With no candidate receiving >50% of the primary vote, preference votes decided the eventual winner.

Step 2. – Candidate with the lowest primary vote is excluded & preferences distributed.

The candidate with the lowest primary votes of 2,589 is Doug Nicholson (LDP).  He is excluded, and the number 2 preferences on his ballot papers are distributed & added to the relevant candidate’s total.  The Independent received 783 (30.24% of his number 2 preferences), ALP 354 (13.67%), Greens 222 (8.57%), FFP 371 (14.33%), and LNP 859 (33.18%).

 Step 3. – The next candidate with the lowest votes is excluded & preferences distributed.

After adding 783 preference votes from the LDP, the Independent Thor Prohaska has the lowest number of votes of 4000.  He is now excluded and the number 2 preference from his 3,217 primary votes & the number 3 preference from the 783 votes received from the LDP are distributed & added to the relevant candidate’s total.  ALP received 1,1,73 (29.33%), Greens received 993 (24.83%), FFP received 1,284 (32,10%) and LNP received 550 (13.75%).

Step 4& 5 – Candidates with the lowest votes are excluded & preferences distributed.

 The process of excluding candidates and distribution of preferences continues until only 2 candidates remain.  The next to be excluded is FFP, followed by the Greens with the final 2 remaining, ALP and LNP.  Prior to the Greens exclusion, the ALP had 34,556 (38%) of the vote, LNP 44,542 (48.98%) and the Greens 11,835 (13.02%).  It is worth understanding that of the 11,835 Greens votes to be distributed that 2,864 came from LDP, IND & FFP preferences.

ALP received 9,455 (79.89%) of the Greens preferences, and LNP received 2,380 (20.11%).  It is highly likely that most of the Greens distribution to the LNP came from the 2,864 LDP, IND & FFP preferences received by the Greens, NOT those who voted Greens number 1.

After the final distribution of the Greens votes, ALP’s Lavarch had 44,011 (48.40%) and LNP’s Dutton had 46,922 (51.60%) of the 2CP vote.  Peter Dutton was ELECTED.

A Summary for Conservatives:

Part 1, and the study in Part 2 of the ficticious electorate of SMALL & the real electorate of DICKSON 2016, have demonstrated the importance & power of preference votes in deciding seats and Governments, and the criticality of the preference order on the ballot paper in deciding who gets excluded & who remains in the 2 candidate preferred race to the finish line.

Rite-ON! urges all voters to make sure their preference ends up with an intended & preferred candidate or party with aligned values & policies to your number 1 choice, should their number 1 choice be excluded.

  1. Understand preferences are equally as important as primary votes, and treat them carefully.
  2. Know your electorate, and the location of polling booths.
  3. Learn what policies and values the candidates in your electorate support .
  4. If possible, avoid the election day crush and vote at pre-polling.
  5. Determine whether your preferred candidate or party has put any Labor, Greens or left-wing independents ABOVE other conservative candidates. If so, this is self interest ‘hostile preferencing’.  Don’t follow their how-to-vote (HTV) card!
  6. Understand that in most electorates the two-horse race will be between the major parties – even if you support the minor parties, or a conservative independent.
  7. Make sure the major party you DON’T want in government, is put LAST!
  8. Number every box on the ballot paper, understanding that your preferences will help elect the candidate and the government.

Part 3 will examine the Senate voting system and the detail of how preferences flow for “above the line” and “below the line” votes & elect Senators.

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Goosey
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Goosey

So then Labor last, not Greens.
Greens second last

elliedog
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elliedog

Shareholders of Qantas should immediately call for the sacking of its CEO following his outrageous abuse of their money to promote his personal ideology. It is akin to thuggery and ignorance about free speech in Australia. Withdrawing sponsorship from Rugby Union if they don’s sack Folau has to be attacked by all Christians and others. Qantas has stooped to the lowest form of corporate behaviour.

igiveup
Member
igiveup

Just listened to Trump at the Opportunity News Conference, I urge any politician to listen to the speakers and find out what passion is.

Franny
Guest
Franny

I was thinking about Mr Israel Folau last night. It occurred to me that I haven’t seen anyone ask this (the following) question (and if you have and i missed it, my apols)…but given what Mr Folau said, I wondered what triggered his saying it. Surely, surely, something must’ve happened for him to have come out and said what he said, in the first place? Has anyone else pondered this? Has anyone asked Mr Folau if something triggered his making that statement, ie, did someone say or do something untoward, that he found personally offensive? Just asking.

Franny
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Franny

Franny There’s footage all over showing someone in islamic style clothing – white robe etc. – walking along an upper balcony while the firefighters were spraying their water on the building. Why hasn’t anyone in mainstream media or the French government, or anyone (other than the Twitterers) mentioned this? Then I saw that a message was posted (on Twitter? I don’t use it so not familiar with how it works) but it was posted a few days before yesterday, advising that Notre Dame would burn in three days’ time. How is it, that that hasn’t been discussed on international news… Read more »

suparat
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suparat

In all honesty I think I am the only person I know who actually understands preferential voting works. This should be taught at school and should be mandatory reading prior to being allowed to vote.

cinerama
Member
cinerama

how do you post the pictures?

Disraeli
Member
Disraeli

Liberman Backing Means Netanyahu Secures 65 Recommendations to Form Government
TEL AVIV – Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on Tuesday secured recommendations from a majority of the 120 Knesset seats, cementing a right-wing coalition of 65 seats.

https://www.breitbart.com/middle-east/2019/04/16/liberman-backing-means-netanyahu-secures-65-recommendations-to-form-government/

cinerama
Member
cinerama

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6929747/Gang-African-teenagers-storm-Optus-store-bowling-elderly-woman-fleeing.html?fbclid=IwAR2y69JbJECxmKXPKLYrMDi9Dv2yFElzzTpIDmNFTEfxYYiCMfJo7Y5usFM

The duopoly follow the UNs orders, remember to wisely.
If are one of the morons on PP who proudly say they vote Liberal with the lame excuse saying that is better than labor being voted in. I say you are responsible for the likely death of this 80 year old woman who had her hip broken.

Ducktracy
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Ducktracy

Notre Dame – An Overt Act of War??,

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUbGvWQ7KZk

Goosey
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Goosey

“If you’re not a liberal at twenty you have no heart,
If you’re not a conservative at forty, you have no brain.”
Winston Churchill AZ Quotes

pablo1
Donor
pablo1

Shorton is the new post……

Micky C
Donor
Micky C

Jim Jordan strike again !!! Well, this isn’t very secret then…for a secret deal. Chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee Elijah Cummings and Financial Services Chairwoman Maxine Waters executed a secret Memorandum of Understanding to “target” President Trump and subpoena all his financial and banking records, according to a letter sent to Cummings from ranking committee member Rep. Jim Jordan. Further, Jordan’s letter indicates that other MOUs have apparently been signed and agreed to with House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence Chairman Rep. Adam Schiff, D-Ca, who has promised to continue investigations into the president despite findings… Read more »

Bkengineering
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Bkengineering

From Radio 2GB A university professor who was sacked for questioning global warming’s impact on the Great Barrier Reef has been vindicated by the Federal Court. Judge Salvatore Vasta ruled James Cook University acted unlawfully when it sacked Professor Peter Ridd in 2017. In his verdict, Judge Vasta found that all 17 findings used by the university to justify the sacking were unlawful. Alan Jones has been supporting the professor ever since, slamming the university for shutting down debate and free thinking. Professor Ridd says the judgement is welcome but tells Alan Jones his fight doesn’t appear to be over.… Read more »

Reflection
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Reflection

Man sentenced to 10 years 6 months in jail for a coward punch on another man which resulted in his death.

This coward was the first to be sentenced under the new MANDATORY law.

the.trooper.remounted
Guest
the.trooper.remounted

Wollondilly Shire Council. Narrellan Police (liquor licensing dept) These 2 organisations in NSW are making things very expensive and very difficult for The Veterans MC to hold their annual ANZAC DAY memorial service, followed by a leisurely ride to which the public and supporters are invited! Followed by food drinks and Entertainment. Key Point: These are all war Veterans from deployment overseas, in the name of Australia and her people! They fought for all of us, no matter what colour, creed or religion or paypacket! We demand that the 2 organisations that have derailed this annual event, to now work… Read more »

BlackRoo
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BlackRoo

Application in for our postal votes today!! Some studying to do.

BlackRoo
Member
BlackRoo

Please buy up Streep’s, Midler’s, Cher’s, Fonda’s neighbours and all the other ones who were heading off to Canada and billet the illegals there.

tomo
Member
tomo

Brendan we need to reinstate Larrys old articles along the right-hand side as sticky s
a lot off what he was saying is so relevant to day

Do not let Larry drift into the past.

tomo

Trader
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Trader

Clearly Shorton is not suitable to run the country. The Libs are far from perfect but if the ALP get their hands on the reigns again, we are in for a very rough economic ride. They are extremely good at playing the emotive card when campaigning as they know that it is very difficult to argue against as those that do will be labelled as heartless bastards that don’t care about ..(insert emotive cause here). I sincerely hope that the libs can get their act together and put their case in simple easy to understand terms, that if we have… Read more »

Minkers
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Minkers

Around 544 AD, construction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan began, carved into a rock face. In 2001 Mullar Omar ordered the destruction of these ancient icons. In 2001, the iconic Twin Towers in America were destroyed, following an order by Al Queda. Is it too much of a long bow to consider that the ancient, iconic Notre Dame Cathedral was destroyed by an order from an Islamic source?

BloodyAmazed
Member
BloodyAmazed

These How to Vote articles by Harry should be submitted to The Australian and similar MSM to publish for all Australians to read. The articles’ approach presents as neutral and should be seen as good advice for all to understand. Don’t bother with leftwing MSM because their objective is to misinform the population to benefit Labor and Greens for all the wrong reasons. Forget about ABC or SBS giving a good explanation or easy to understand examples, as they are the mouthpieces for Labor and Greens. Two points: 1. The Dickson example shows just how an election outcome that should… Read more »

pablo1
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pablo1

Harry R…. Another great informative article…..I am looking forward to the next installment..

tomo
Member
tomo

Its time we do it here
ship em all to s/a vic/
leave the rest of us alone

Ducktracy
Member
Ducktracy

comment image

Ducktracy
Member
Ducktracy

Got it…tested in the original article called “machine” now i know…thanks

Let them eat cake
Guest
Let them eat cake
pablo1
Donor
pablo1

Report: Social media blunder in Folau’s $4m deal

The Daily Telegraph has revealed the social media restraints everyone said were in Israel Folau’s contract never actually existed.
https://www.news.com.au/sport/rugby/report-social-media-blunder-in-folaus-4m-deal/news-story/718463003293b7df792183bac4bc7db1

MaxBilney
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MaxBilney

I hope Tigerbalm does not mind multisex toilets, with newspapers stuffed into the sanitary bin and a bloke sitting farting next door. Also, they are getting rid of male urinals in these toilets, so men piss all over the seat. Gays leave their sprog, as usual, as a calling card on the back of the dunny doors. Some leave phone numbers and crude messages. And then boy transgenders are entering women’s change rooms. I turfed a voyeur poofter out of the RSL toilets last night. It simply does not work at multi dunny wash basins and mirrors. Women get embarrassed… Read more »

pablo1
Donor
pablo1

Bill Shorten has not fared well on the election campaign trail over the past 24 hours.

The Labor leader has been described as “shifty” for refusing to answer key policy questions, deleting reams of information from his website, being caught in a fib and bickering with media.

It emerged yesterday dozens of pages of detail about Mr Shorten’s negative gearing policy had suddenly disappeared from Labor’s website.

Overnight, an entire section outlining the party’s plan for superannuation also disappeared, which Treasurer Josh Frydenberg has seized upon.

“What is Labor trying to hide?” Mr Frydenberg said. “Which one of Labor’s taxes is next?”
https://www.news.com.au/national/federal-election/he-looks-shifty-bill-shorten-is-having-an-absolute-shocker-on-the-campaign-trail/news-story/52d3f6dcb3614c8aed00bf15233157b7

Let them eat cake
Guest
Let them eat cake

Bill Shorten: “The recession we had to have mark 2.”

the.trooper.remounted
Guest
the.trooper.remounted

conservative and libertarian voices in the media have come under attack from extreme left trolls attempting to deprive right-leaning journalists politicians and commentators of a platform by pressuring advertisers to withdraw their sponsorship. Andrew Bolt Miranda Devine and even former Liberal Democrats Senator David Leyonjhelm are just some of the targets of nefarious trolls calling themselves the ‘Sleeping Giants Oz’. As a result of their efforts companies including NIB Hyundai Hotondo Homes and Scenic Cruises have pulled sponsorship from conservative programs pressuring media platforms and TV stations to reduce the representation of right-leaning voices. Pizza Hut has become the latest… Read more »

Ducktracy
Member
Ducktracy

BBS, how did you post the cartoon?

Goosey
Member
Goosey

Follow this link for the situation in Denmark.
https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/14047/denmark-immigration
But for the grace of God goes Australia.. or perhaps more likely, thus goes Australia just a few years behind.
The oft mentioned voting power of the immigrants is a real stumbling block for Denmark.
The reaping what was sown is happening there.

JofG
Member
JofG

Just listened to a pre recorded interview with Shorten conducted by their ABC Perth – it confirms my already jaded opinion of him, the bloke is a snake who still cannot get the fact that franking credits have already been taxed, no way can he answer the cost of his ridiculous climate policy (financial or human) – needs to get the same treatment as the snake who decided to sun itself in a large pot on my patio, goodbye Bill!

Ducktracy
Member
Ducktracy

Candace Owens’ Testimony Was Historic??

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rBiq_smTbg

rosa
Member
rosa

Julia Banks criticises the Chisholm candidate Gladys Liu for comments she made in 2016 that any straight thinking adult would agree with. So I hope the people of Chisholm agree with Liu and that she wins the seat. “Abhorrent” Banks slams Liu comments” Canberra Times. And I hope T’bull backed Banks loses in Flinders and that we never have to hear from her again.

LadyPirate
Guest
LadyPirate

These Muslim Illegals really take the cake. .Always complaining. This morning an Item about Illegals. Think it was Pom Land. 2 sitting there complaining that the toilets are never clean. Of course picture, of the toilet and garbage around the place. So why don’t they get up off their fat lazy arses and clean them ? Why leave rubbish all around where they live. What is it with this mob ?

Bkengineering
Donor
Bkengineering

Apparently Electricity Bill thought an electric vehicle Army would be stealthy.

He knows recharging takes 8 to 10 minutes but forgot that there are no recharging stations in war zones, and diesel generators make a lot of noise when there are hundreds of them.

And the payload on vehicles after battery pack would be inconvenient wouldn’t it.

lol

ThePhantom Returns
Member
ThePhantom Returns

China’s Mammoth Coal Industry Gets Bigger, Crowding Out Imports Date: 10/04/19 Bloomberg A year of plenty for China’s coal industry will probably mean a slump in imports, with miners in Australia likely to be the hardest hit. The world’s biggest producer and consumer of the fuel is set to lift output by more than 100 million tons in 2019, Wang Hongqiao, vice president of the China National Coal Association, said at a conference in Shanghai on Tuesday. The nation dug up 3.55 billion tons in 2018. Another increase would be the third year in a row and could see output… Read more »

rosa
Member
rosa

The Oz, Caroline Ovington Commentary “Bill’s female-voter problem. Put your ear to the ground, there’s a bit of chat out there that women don’t much like Bill Shorten..”

Flysa
Donor
Flysa

Sodomy received a kick start in Rugby and League in 2001 when Hopo started inserting the digit ad anum. The powers that be decided why just fingers, and so it became obligatory to earn one’s “spurs”. Still not quite as bad as the Freemasons who insist upon a billy goat.

Indignant Elder
Donor
Indignant Elder

SCARY! Ocasio-Cortez Admits In Interview She Thinks About About Running for POTUS [Listen]

https://ilovemyfreedom.org/scary-ocasio-cortez-adm
SCARY! Ocasio-Cortez Admits In Interview She Thinks About About Runnin…
FREE EVERYTHING!

Indignant Elder
Donor
Indignant Elder

Democrats Are Using Ilhan Omar As An Excuse To Chill Speech
https://thefederalist.com/2019/04/16/democrats-usi
#Omar #dems
Democrats Are Using Ilhan Omar As An Excuse To Chill Speech
Whether Ilhan Omar has increased threats against her or not, she is a public figure with strong opinions and deserves no special dispensation from deb…

Indignant Elder
Donor
Indignant Elder

Nothing new in that.

Fury as vile cleric from World Cup host country Qatar films shocking guide on how Muslim men should beat their wives

https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/8876237/world-cup-cl

Isn’t that just precious?!
Fury as vile cleric from World Cup host country Qatar films shocking g…
A LEADING academic and cleric from World Cup host country Qatar has filmed a shocking guide on how Muslim men should beat their wives. The vile video.

Indignant Elder
Donor
Indignant Elder

Trump administration prepares to take advantage of court ruling allowing the government to send Central American migrants to Mexico to await adjudication of their asylum claims

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6927951/T
Trump admin prepares to send migrants to Mexico to await asylum
Donald Trump’s administration is preparing take advantage of a court’s ruling that it can send Central American migrants back to Mexico to await adjud

Indignant Elder
Donor
Indignant Elder

Students Rebel Against Transgender Ideology in Iowa, Alaska http://bit.ly/2V4xOR9 via @BreitbartNews
Students Rebel Against Transgender Ideology in Iowa, Alaska
American students protest the official claim that people can change their sex by declaring they feel like a member of the opposite sex.

Ducktracy
Member
Ducktracy

Stop the leftist trolls’ war on free speech!

Conservative and libertarian voices in the media are under attack, as extreme left trolls attempt to deprive right-leaning journalists, politicians and commentators of a platform by pressuring advertisers to withdraw their sponsorship.

Andrew Bolt, Miranda Devine and even former Liberal Democrats Senator David Leyonjhelm, are just some of the targets of nefarious trolls calling themselves the ‘Sleeping Giants Oz’.

As a result of their efforts, companies including NIB, Hyundai, Hotondo Homes and Scenic Cruises have pulled sponsorship from conservative programs, pressuring media platforms and TV stations to reduce the representation of right-leaning voices.http://www.taxpayers.org.au/pizza_hut?utm_campaign=pizza_hut&utm_medium=email&utm_source=austaxpayers